Sunday, March 15, 2020

How to Create a First-Class Ethics Term Paper

How to Create a First-Class Ethics Term Paper Writing an ethics term paper is equivalent to writing an ethical question. Therefore, your term paper should concentrate on issues concerning what ought to be done from an ethical perspective rather than what is practical or typical, or even what is consistently based on certain popular or religious beliefs. Your term paper should focus on issues concerning fairness, consequences, and rights as they constitute ethical reasoning. Your professor may provide you an opportunity to select term paper topics. Alternatively, you may be required to address specific issues that focus on the violation of peoples rights, the fairness of certain decisions, and personal and societal effects of certain choices. The success of your ethics term paper writing depends on how effectively you state your reasons for the position you take in argumentative narratives, how you articulate your arguments, how you adhere to stipulated guidelines, and how you observe term paper mechanics. Writing a term paper on ethics is a tedious process, especially when you lack necessary abilities and some level of understanding of the elements that constitute a term paper. Regardless of the level of your study in post-secondary education, writing term papers is part of the evaluation process that professors use to test your understanding of concepts, your ability to apply concepts, and your critical abilities. This guideline provides you with the necessary ethics term paper writing tips that will guide you through your ethics term paper writing process. Pre-Writing Tips from Our Writers for an Immediate Start Off Before beginning your term paper writing process, you need to understand the meaning of the term ‘pre-writing.’ Pre-writing denotes the actions you should take before you begin writing your first ethics draft. The main rule that guides the writing process to ensures one writes a high-quality term paper concerns working on the quality of your pre-writing phase and the outcome of the process. In this case, the more you work on your pre-writing, the easier it is to write your first and subsequent drafts of your term paper. Accordingly, you need to take pre-writing seriously. Below are the common and important pre-writing tips. Choice of the topic. The selection of your term paper topic is vital. If you have concepts or issues you have background information on or issues that tickle your interest, or those that are controversial or trending, these could be your ideal term paper topics. However, the issues and concepts should be based on topics in ethics, such as virtue theory, meta-ethics, consequentialism, and deontology, among others. Alternatively, search for topics within your preferred area of ethics in ethics journals, online platforms, books, and trending news. Perhaps your teacher will assign you a topic or provide a list from which you should select your subject matter. If such is the case, select your topic wisely. Brainstorming. Once you are done with the topic selection, you should move to brainstorming. Brainstorming involves writing down any word or words you can think of which are related to the ethics topic. You do not need to think much about their relevance. At this point, it is fine to have redundant material because it involves jotting down any ideas that cross your mind. Being redundant during this stage, is not a problem, as you will define your thoughts as you progress through the writing process. Thorough research. The ideas you come up with during the brainstorming session should help you develop viable ideas on appropriate term paper content. Research involves finding relevant sources that provide adequate information on your chosen term paper topic. Use keywords during your research, especially if it is based on online searches. The sources should be scholarly where possible and should be current unless you are tackling a topic that requires a historical overview. The context of your topic should also help you search for appropriate content for your term paper. Meticulous note-taking. Note taking should occur when conducting project research. It involves writing down the main points that come up during your research. The notes may not have a particular flow and may focus on different themes that may or may not form part of the term paper. It is important to draft quality notes that are not only legible but also clear in content. In this regard, ensure that you do not write sloppy notes as there is nothing as bad as not being able to make sense of your own writing. Solid plan. The final pre-writing tip concerns formulation of a quality plan. A quality plan is an outline of the term paper. Once you have your notes, it is now time to plan where specific points will fit in your term paper. In this case, plan your introductory content, information that will form the main part of the term paper, and inferences that you and your audience can draw from the term paper. Topic Selection for Your Ethics Term Paper A good ethics term paper topic should fascinate you, inspire your passion for engaging in writing about the topic, be specific and concrete, researchable, and should not be too technical or too trivial. Choosing an appropriate term paper topic involves several steps that involve: Searching for several topics and making a list of possible options. At this point, you can Google controversial topics in ethics, social issues affecting society but based on ethics, as well as current issues. You can go to the library and search for possible topics in ethics or browse magazines, journal articles, or encyclopedias. Eliminating topics. Once you have an idea on possible topics, cross off any topics that are not appealing to you and those with little research materials. If the ethics term paper is argumentative, cross off any topics that are not arguable. Highlight the most appealing topics. Appealing topics are those that are in line with your interests and those that are manageable and have adequate resource materials. From the highlighted topics, select one with materials and scope that can sustain your term paper. In this case, you should ask yourself the following questions before settling on a particular topic: What do I know about the topic? When is the topic appropriate for discussion? Is the topic current or outdated? How does the topic fit into the term paper objective? Is the topic too broad or too narrow? Do I have adequate resource material? If you can find answers to the above questions after settling on a topic, then you are good to go. Below are some examples of topics for your ethics term paper: Utilitarianism and Critical Analysis of the Ideology; The Concepts of Freedom vs. Happiness in Modern Society; Compare and Contrast of Utilitarianism and Egoism; Utilitarianism Is the Best Approach in Addressing Environmental Issues; Difference Between Utilitarianism and Deontology. Formulating a Thesis Statement for Your Ethics Term Paper Once you have your topic and ideas on what your term paper will focus, it is important to formulate a claim that forms your thesis statement. A thesis statement is a claim that presents the focus of your term paper. You need to understand that your term paper should have the main idea and the arguments you present in the paper should reflect the idea. A thesis statement captures the main ideas and your position on these ideas. It is specific and usually consists of two sentences or one depending on the objective of the term paper. The first sentence of the thesis statement should present the topic of your paper while the second sentence should comment on your position on the ethics topic. Questions you need to ask when formulating a thesis statement for your ethics term paper include: Where is my thesis statement? Is my thesis statement specific? Is the thesis statement too general? Is the statement clear and does it present my position on the discussion issue at hand? Is my thesis statement original? Does my thesis statement provide room for disputing the claims presented? An effective thesis statement is refutable. This implies that the target audience or a different writer can contest the arguments presented. As noted earlier, the thesis statement should be written as the last sentence of the paper introduction segment. Appropriate Outline for Your Ethics Term Paper A paper in ethics philosophy whether in deontology or existentialism or any other field of ethics consists of at least three parts, namely the introduction, the body, and the conclusion. The body segment has further divisions that can be presented in the form of paragraphs. These divisions focus on the presentation of arguments, the presentation of counter-arguments, and a response to the raised objections. Introduction. The opening paragraph of your term paper serves as an introduction to your paper. The introduction should present your topic, arguments discussed in the paper, your intended objective, and should contain a thesis statement and an explanation of your thesis. If you do not have a clear picture of your paper organization at this stage, it is appropriate to write the entire paper and compose the introduction once you finish the main body of the term paper. In this case, compose the other sections of the paper first, and come back to (re)write the introduction so that it reflects what your ethics term paper discusses. Where necessary, define the key terms in your thesis statement. These terms should define your paper and provide the scope of the term paper. Such terms may be, ‘abortion, ‘euthanasia,’ ‘immorality,’ and ‘personhood.’ Body. The body of the term paper should present your argument as stipulated in your introduction. The arguments should be presented in a paragraph form to imply that each paragraph should focus on one main argument. Moreover, each paragraph should have a topic sentence that makes a claim for the paragraph. The topic sentence should be in line with the term paper topic and the thesis statement. The subsequent sentences in the paragraph should provide evidence that supports the noted claim. In cases where the body section should contain subheadings, it is important to group themes in a way that they provide a systematic analysis of appropriate content for each subheading. Presenting arguments that support the thesis. This section is the part of the body section. The arguments constitute the greater part of the term paper. When presenting your term paper arguments, use compelling premises logically. Present the possible arguments in paragraphs. Each argument should be discussed in its own paragraph along with evidence that supports the argument. Your paragraphs should demonstrate that you have an understanding of the term paper topic and written content. Provide both empirical and theoretical support for the presented arguments and do not repeat your arguments. Presenting objections to the thesis. If your ethics term paper contains arguments that oppose the main claim, present them after articulating the main ideas. At this point, you step into your opponent’s shoes and ask yourself what some of the arguments against the thesis statement are. Review research materials whose authors disagree with your thesis and present their ideas as objections to your thesis. Each counter argument should be presented in its own paragraph just as when you present the main arguments. Remember your target audience and do not include unfounded counterarguments. Conclusion. The conclusion sums up your term paper and provides your recommended action plan where applicable. You should include a restatement of the thesis statement and a brief summary of arguments. Do not introduce new ideas and arguments at this stage because it only serves to summarize the entire term paper. Post Writing Tips on the Last Things You Should Do The post writing tips entail proofreading and referencing the ethics term paper. You should begin by checking the paper to ensure you identify the most significant points of the topic. Ensure that your paper is free of grammatical mistakes and sentence structure issues. The sentences should be coherent and in the correct tense. The logical presentation of ideas is important in a term paper; hence, proofreading should involve ensuring there is a coherent flow of ideas and arguments. Finally, ensure you quote any borrowed sources and use appropriate citation mechanisms as required by your professor.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

Breeding Thourghbred Racing Horses Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Breeding Thourghbred Racing Horses - Essay Example ing of thoroughbred horses is a highly intricate and technical matter and a breeder’s success is measured by lesser failure rate as compared to others. Only a handful of winning horses can be produced from hundreds of crosses during a lifetime. Although the qualities of both the mare and the stallion may be exceptional, genetic variations result in offsprings which are not necessarily as good as their parents. Traditional breeding art has to be combined with the modern knowledge of population as well as molecular genetics. Some basic genetic philosophies which are pertinent to the development of a good breed include careful inbreeding structuring to obtain a balance between genetic health and performance, coordination of genetic components for a specific stamina ideal and ‘fixing’ of genetic characteristics using appropriate breeding programs (thorughbredgenetics.com). DNA based analyses of databases can determine whether horses will conform to required ideals in terms of racing potential and stamina. However winners don’t necessarily come from champion parents and exceptions have been there where champions have resulted from uncontrolled breeding. Training of the horses is another aspect which is important in making champions out of ordinary thoroughbreds with none too illustrious bloodlines. Although thoroughbreds are judged more by performance rather than looks, attractive horses have additional advantages in terms of aesthetic appeal. Single trait selection is much easier while developing a breed as compared to an endeavor where multiple positive traits are attempted. Bays and Chestnuts are the most common colors in thoroughbreds although there have been concerted efforts to breed pintos and palominos to make the horses have more visual appeal. The Quarter Horse Association is responsible for breeding paints and Appaloosas, which have characteristic spotting and color patterns, which were initially scoffed at by traditional breeders. Quarter and

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

The Red Tent, by Anita Diamant Personal Statement

The Red Tent, by Anita Diamant - Personal Statement Example After finding shelter in Egypt, she delivers her son and realizes that her family has lost all accounts of her The Red Tent is a great novel anyone who tries to gain a better understanding of a female’s perspective from an older generation standpoint. It outlines the difficulty of young women, who undergoes drastic life experiences as she witnesses her husband getting murdered. One of the most essential themes that are explicitly emphasized upon is the fact of that she is engrossed in all her memories. Dinah is almost forced to narrate her story from the fear that she will not ever remember these memories. Undoubtedly, these memories are critical towards her life experience. From my perspective, the author is trying to insist on the fact that our life experiences are critical as they are associated with memories. Without having these experiences, humans cannot fully develop their personalities. Another theme that is emphasized in this novel is the ability to heal. Clearly, humans are sensitive creatures that possess and experience strong emotions. Dinah witnesses her husband getting m urdered. In addition, she was also raped. Both of these incidents are traumatic as they can impact any individual dramatically. However, she is able to recuperate through time and patience. Her son is the hallmark of her striving to exist even when her life is shattered with these events. Anita Diamant, in this novel undoubtedly shows the futile superiority of men and portrays the strength that a woman must possess even after she experiences life changing events. She is clear to capture the essence of feminism in her novel through Dinah and shows the qualities that women possess that make them beautiful, sensitive

Friday, January 31, 2020

Rights of the individual were primary to the well being of the community Essay Example for Free

Rights of the individual were primary to the well being of the community Essay Nietzsche prefers individuals over community. He believes that all effort should be made for the development and growth of individuals and not for the hoard of men called human society. He does not belong to that group of moralists who held the protection of rights and progress of the whole society primary and that of individuals as secondary. Nietzsche held this group of thinkers in contempt as he is an outspoken supporter of the protection of the rights and multi-dimensional growth of individuals. To community he gives a secondary place because he believes that when the individuals of a community strengthened the whole community will be strengthened. Those communities, he believes, cannot survive for long that care for the whole and not for the individuals. Let us discuss in detail Nietzsche’s vehement support for the primary importance and rights of individuals. Nietzsche believed that all the powers and toil of humanity should be directed towards the overall development of individual human beings and this work should not be wasted by employing it towards raising the status of the whole human society, for instance he said that it is not mankind but superman is his goal. He even refuses to believe in the concrete existence of a collective human society. He criticizes those who believe in work directed towards the development of society. Nietzsche believes that society should work only for the individuals, and individuals should not waste their energies for the betterment of societies. According to him those societies waste their existence at all that failed to produce powerful and worthy individuals. Societies should work as machines for polishing the powers and capabilities of individuals. Nietzsche doesn’t want religion of the society to shackle the free spirit of individuals. He wants a free world for the individuals so that there spirits and intellects should grow to the fullest extent completely unrestrained by any narrow-minded views of the society. That’s the reason he does not look favorably at Christianity and its propagators- the priests. He castigates priesthood and illustrates their depravity in this way; â€Å"Behold these huts which these priests built! Churches they call their sweet-smelling caves. Oh, that falsified light! That musty air! Here the soul is not allowed to soar to its height. For thus their faith commands: â€Å"Crawl up the stairs on your knees, ye sinners! †Ã¢â‚¬ (Nietzsche, 1978. p. 91). He does not want a religion that eats up the rights of individuals. He wants that kind of social setup and social code of life which offers no resistance to the free life of individuals. Even with regards to morality he does not supports that kind of morality which benefits a community and harms the individual. He wants the ‘will’ of individuals to be strengthened and so does not hate the pleasures of flesh. He does not want man to be afraid of the moral laws of society rather he wants him to be brave, strong and independent. Nietzsche wants his men to live a life that is beyond good and evil. An unfettered life. He wants his brave independent men to speak and stammer these words; This is my good; this I love; it pleases me wholly; thus alone do I want the good. I do not want it as divine law; I do not want it as human statute and need: it shall not be signpost for me to over earths and paradises. It is an earthly virtue that I love: there is little prudence in it, and least of all the reason of all men. But this bird built its nest with me: therefore I love and caress it; now it dwells with me, sitting on its golden eggs. (Nietzsche, 1978. p. 36). The life of man, he believes, should not be hindered the strict moral codes made by divinity or community. When the individuals get stronger the society of them will get stronger automatically, this Nietzsche believes. On the other hand if a community kept on giving importance to its well being and not to that of the individuals it will definitely end up in disaster and destruction of both-individual and society. Nietzsche feels that only free men can live and enjoy their lives. The slaves of different passions and laws cannot do that. In his work, Zarathustra spoke to a youth this way; â€Å"You are not yet free, you still search for freedom. You are worn from your search and over awake. You aspire to the free heights, your soul thirsts for the stars. But your wicked instincts, too, thirst for freedom. Your wild dogs want freedom; they bark with joy in their cellar when your spirit plans to open all prisons. To me you are still a prisoner who is plotting his freedom: alas, in such prisoners the soul becomes clever, but also deceitful and bad. And even the liberated spirit must still purify himself. Much prison and mustiness still remain in him: his eyes must still become pure. † (Nietzsche, 1978. p. 43) Free men give birth to free communities and slave men gave birth to slave communities, this Nietzsche seems to believe in his seminal work â€Å"Thus Spoke Zarathustra†. Nietzsche believes that people should be free to get knowledge and dig out truth for themselves. He hates the people who prefer falsehood for the sake of social good. He says again that, â€Å"You have served the people and the superstition of the people, all you famous wise men—and not truth. And that is precisely why you were accorded respect †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦thus the master lets his slaves have their way and is even amused by their pranks† (Nietzsche, 1978. p. 102). He believes that the community does not want to accord people the right to believe in and search the truth â€Å"But the free spirit, the enemy of fetters, the non-adorer who dwells in the woods, is as hateful to the people as a wolf to dogs. To hound him out of his lair-that is what the people have ever called ‘a sense of decency’; and against him the people still set their fiercest dogs. † (Nietzsche, 1978. p. 102) He believes that only truth seekers and truthful men could live with dignity, â€Å"Hungry, violent, lonely, godless: thus the lion-will wants itself. Free from the happiness of slaves, redeemed from gods and adorations, fearless and fear inspiring, great and lonely: such is the will of the truthful. † (Nietzsche, 1978. p. 103) For those people who don’t have independent thinking minds he spoke angrily in these words, â€Å"but in the cities dwell the well-fed, famous wise men- the beasts of burden. For, as asses, they always pull the people’s cart. † (Nietzsche, 1978. p. 104) Nietzsche strongly believes that, individuals having independent minds and free-thinking natures raise life to the higher planes of existence; which cannot be done otherwise by slave minds and natures. The community of men will get stronger when the right to search knowledge freely is granted to the individuals and when the individuals themselves struggle to get that right. To sum up, it is stated that Nietzsche is a staunch believer in the rights of individuals. He is one of those thinkers who held the importance of the rights of individual primary and that of community as secondary. According to him a community will get strengthen only when its citizens get strengthen individually. He believes that these individuals should be allowed to grow and develop themselves completely unfettered by the restrictions of the community. Above mentioned arguments and supported evidence clearly manifest Nietzsche’s philosophical orientation about individuality and individual rights. Work Cited Nietzsche, Fredrich. (1978). Thus Spoke Zarathustra (Walter Kaufmann, Trans. ). New York: Random House.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Devestation Man Brings upon Himself in Goldings Lord of the Flies :: essays research papers

William Golding's Lord of the Flies is a story that has hidden symbolism. It is about a group of British schoolboys fleeing from England during World War 1. Their plane crashes on a deserted tropical island. Once on the island they have to cope with their new ?adult-less? life and make rules to live by. After spending time on the island, the boys begin to struggle for power which leads to several problems. The experience on the island serves as a symbol of life in the outside world and the devastation that man brings upon himself. Setting, specific characters, and symbolism help show this. The setting of the story is an important symbol of the outside world. Certain circumstances that happen on the island coincide what happens in the outside world. The world is in the midst of World War 1. On the island Jack and Ralph have their own war happening. The boys set fire to the island. It was a mistake, but they were enjoying it: ?At the sight of the flames and irresistible course of fire, the boys broke into a shrill, excited laughter.? They were enjoying the fire, though it was causing destruction and even killed an innocent boy. However, they were not much bothered by the thought because it did not involve them directly. They built ?war like? forts, even though there was nothing worth protecting. The island is like a miniature world. Certain circumstances that happen in the world happen on a miniature scale on the island. Specific characters in the story represent people in the outside world. Jack represents a dictator, like Hitler or Mussolini. He controls everything around him and abuses his power. He would take littluns and randomly beat them because he had more power over them. The littluns represented the masses. They would flow towards the leader that seemed the best for them. All they wanted to do was have fun, relax, and hunt. Jack provided all of that. Piggy was the voice of intelligence and reasoning: ?Which is better, law and rescue, or hunting and breaking things up He was the most intelligent person on the island and the rules came from him. Each person?s true identity came out on the island, for better or for worse, and they are all representative of to people in the outside world. The symbolism throughout the entire novel was significant. Jacks mindless hunters never spoke out against their leader.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

College Is It Worth It

? College – Is it Worth it? Right now in our society university education is no longer an option or privilege, but rather a necessity. We are practically raised and conditioned to believe that one needs higher education in order to succeed in life. There is a saying that says â€Å"if you think education is expensive, try ignorance. † But as technology is constantly advancing and computers are running almost anything, is a college education really necessary? There are people who have never set foot in a college and are doing better than people who have their master's degree. There are views from both sides that contain a valid argument. The main reason why people go to college is not because they want to but because they have to. Most 11th and 12th graders are pressured by their parents to go to college because it is â€Å"the right thing to do. â€Å"† In the essay that Caroline Bird wrote â€Å"College is a Waste of Time and Money†, she states that students go to college because † . . . Mother wanted them to go, or some other reason entirely irrelevant to the course of studies for which college is supposedly organized. The student may have different ideas about what he or she wants to do in life, but because they think that their parents know what is best for them, they probably end up doing something they do not want to do, resulting in being miserable and resentful. Let's face it, going to college is socially prestigious. Most people go to college only for the title of being called a college student. For some young people, it is a graceful way to get away from home and become independent without losing the financial support of their parents. They do not want to be looked down upon so they do what would look â€Å"best in the eyes of society†. It is practically beat into our heads that in order to be a respectable citizen of society, you should have some sort of university education. Being a college student is perhaps a more respectable role than being, for example, a clerk or a garbage man because of the negative connotations such jobs receive. Going to college and getting a degree does not necessarily guarantee that an individual is going to get a job right after graduation. It is hard out there for recent graduates to find a good job since there is so much competition due to the insanely increasing numbers of our population and a wildrace for the lions share in every field. Even if they do get a job, it is usually not in what they got their degree for. Many college students would feel that college is a waste of money because they do not learn what they want to. Instead they have to take classes that have close to nothing to do with their major but are only taking these classes in order to fulfill a general educational requirement. Upon graduation, some feel that they are at a disadvantage because more time could have been spent on learning more within their field of study and less on irrelevant materials. Now for the pros of having a professional college education. The major reason of going to college is, of course, to get a good job. College prepares us with academic knowledge in order to succeed in the future. According to Ernest Boyner higher education is essential for preparation for one's future. He states that: In spatial terms, teaching and learning may begin in a classroom, but course work also spills over into the life of the campus and the community. Students engage in experimential learning and co-curricular activities that take abstract ideas and anchor them in real-life problems. As the competition to get a decent job is increasing, it is close to impossible to obtain a high paying job without at least a bachelor's degree. Many jobs that only used to want their workers to have a high school diploma now require some college education due to their extremely complicated nature. Another way college is worth the money, however, is because it is one of the few institutions that often contains people of different ethnic and racial backgrounds. Such a situation allows one to develop their social and communicative skills because they are exposed to unfamiliar cultures. This is necessary for the fact that a person does not want to come across as ignorant towards a certain culture. This only, however, comes in handy when you are being educated abroad. College is like a stepping stone to becoming a responsible adult because for the first time most people are practically on their own (that would definitely include me). It is completely different from high school in that not only that school has to be dealt with, but you have to juggle your personal time and financial state as well. They go away to college and face circumstances that they would most likely come across when they finally do go on their own. Bills have to be paid, time has to be managed efficiently, and deadlines have to be met, just like in the â€Å"real world. † College is not only about getting a good job ‘but about acquiring knowledge and broadening one's horizon. A lot of courses that are at school are not needed for a certain major but are just there for interested people who want to learn more about a certain subject. Bowen explains this by breaking it down into three aspects: †¦ the specific goals for the education function are derived. This function†¦ is intended to help students develop as persons in three respects: cognitive learning, by expanding their knowledge and intellectual powers; affective development, by enhancing their moral, religious, and emotional interests and sensibilities; and practical competence, by improving their performance in citizenship, work, family life, consumer choice, health, and other practical affairs. It is sometimes just as good to be an intelligent person and know about a lot of things instead of being someone who makes a lot of money. My admission into an arts college after a lifetime of struggle of being an a-grade science student, had led me to seriously consider the complexity of this topic and what i have learned is that college definitely has its pros and cons. But I think that college is what you make of it. It can be the best time of your life, but only if you want it to. You can take the pessimistic view about it and think that college is a waste of money, or it can be looked at as a challenging and exciting new frontier that basically will set the precedent for the rest of your life. No matter what i learn in this environment that has been setup on an organised platform to produce strong and self assured individuls that will help make this deteriorating world a better place to live in ,even if we do'nt do it conciously, what I know for sure is that the education I recieve in this college will always be of invaluable worth once i step out in the ruthless fish-eat-fish world.

Monday, January 6, 2020

Public Borrowing in the Philippines - 2777 Words

Public Borrowing Public borrowing defined Public borrowing is money government borrows to fund public spending, the total amount of money that a countrys central government has borrowed to fund its spending on public services and benefits.[1] Public debt - the total of the nations debts: debts of local, state, and national governments; an indicator of how much public spending is financed by borrowing instead of taxation. [2] Origin of Public Borrowing [4] Mercantilist Period (1500-1750) European economists between 1500 and 1750 are considered mercantilists. This is the era of merchant capital, dependent on connections between social and productive systems. [4] Mercantilism started it all, during this era colonies†¦show more content†¦In order to pay for these projects, the government must finance part of their expenditures. When a government borrows money it also avoids the excessive tax burden that such payments would involve in a single tax period. Public borrowing is generally believed to have an inflationary effect on the economy and for that reason is often resorted to in recessionary periods to stimulate investment, employment, and consumption. ïÆ'Ëœ To finance expenditures. ïÆ'Ëœ Due to its inflationary effect on the economy to stimulate investment, employment, and consumption. ïÆ'Ëœ To meet temporary needs, as when estimated revenue falls below or is exceeded by estimated expenditures. Public debt is advantageous in the sense that part of the national funds are secured at an interest rate lower than that provided to private industry and in that the financial operations of government are funded on a permanent basis. It may also have an expansionary effect on employment and production during times of high unemployment. 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